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Q. Discuss the ameliorative measures adopted by the govt. of India and govt. of the states for SCs, STs, and other backward classes under art 46.

Central and state governments have adopted a lot of measures for the betterment of SCs, STs, and oBCs in accordance with the special provisions given in the constitution. They are as follows:

Civil Provisions

The foremost of all measures is the enactment of Untouchability Removal Act which was later on renamed to Protection of Civil Rights Act 1955. This act tries to abolish untouchability and ostracism of SCs and STs from the mainstream society. It allows for punishment for any one who practices or preaches untouchability, or prevents any person from entering a public place such as a temple, hotel, shops, hospitals, schools, hostels. It forbids the practice of boycott or insult of any person from society on the grounds of untouchability. It prohibits anybody from restricting trade - buying/selling from/to any person on the grounds of untouchability.
Section 6 of this act stipulates a minimum of 1 month to a maximum of 6 months of imprisonment and a fine of 100 to 500 rupees.

In case of State of Karanataka vs Appa Balu Ingle  AIR 1993, SC upheld the conviction of the respondents for restraining the complaining party by show of force from filling water from a public well because they were untouchables.

Abolishment of forced labor .
Reservation in legislature.

Educational Provisions
Reservation in educational institutes. Relaxation is qualifying marks. Establishment of primary schools in remote areas. Relaxation in school and college fees. Mid day meal schemes for poor children going to school. Establishment of hostel facilities. Training and coaching institutes. Free stationary supplies. 

Welfare Programs
Establishment of ministries for the welfare of SC/STs. SC/ST cells in police stations. Several programs on national and state level such as - Janani Suraksha Yojana, Deendaya Upadhyaya Yojana.

Housing Programs
Under Kutir Yojana, cheap housing is provided to SC/STs. They are given land pattas for housing as well.

Fiscal Measures
MP has a department of National Backward Classes Financial Development Corporation that provides various kinds of loans and other financial assistance to people of backward classes. Some occupations under which loans are given are:
People can choose any of the above occupations and get a loan. They can get Term loan (max. 5 lac), margin money loan ( max. 2 lacs), micro loan ( max 25000). These loans are available at a very low rate.